Thursday, January 24, 2013

TWO new fresh papers for the Online Dating Industry.

PAPER "Do men vary more than women in personality? A study in 51 cultures"
"Do men vary more than women in personality? Evolutionary, genetic, and cultural arguments suggest that hypothesis. In this study we tested it using 12,156 college student raters from 51 cultures who described a person they knew well on the 3rd-person version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. In most cultures, male targets varied more than female targets, and ratings by female informants varied more than ratings by male informants, which may explain why higher variances for men are not found in self-reports. Variances were higher in more developed, and effects of target sex were stronger in more individualistic societies. It seems that individualistic cultures enable a less restricted expression of personality, resulting in larger variances and particularly so among men."

The measurement instrument was Form R of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992), a 240-item measure of the Five-Factor model of personality. It measures the five basic personality dimensions Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness to Experience (O), Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C).
Translation and administration of the measurement instruments constituted an international collaborative effort. Valid peer reports were available for 12,156 target persons (51.9% female) from 48 countries, but as samples from French-speaking and German-speaking Switzerland, from England and Northern Ireland, and from China and Hong Kong were kept separate, the number of samples was 51. Sample sizes varied from N = 106 (Northern Ireland) to N = 919 (United States), 63.5% of the informants being female. The distribution of target age was bimodal with local maxima of 21 and 45 years, reflecting the instruction to describe a college-aged male or female person, or an adult male or female person beyond age 40.
For statistical inference, we relied on hierarchical linear modeling, testing a three-level model. The outcome variable was the squared deviation of each target person's score from the culture-, sex-, and facet-specific mean. As a variance is the average squared deviation of individual observations from their mean, the sample mean of squared deviation scores (SDS) is the variance in that sample.

Stronger personality differences in more developed societies may reflect more opportunities and more diverse behavioral options in such cultures, allowing a less restricted expression of personality dispositions, whereas expressions of personality may be more restricted in less developed societies reflecting lack of money, stricter social norms, lack of political freedom, and lack of educational and vocational opportunities.

PAPER "Sex Differences in Variability in Personality: A Study in Four Samples"
Objective: Men vary more than women in cognitive abilities and physical attributes, and we expected that men would vary more in personality too. That this has not been found previously may reflect that (a) personality was measured by self-reports that confound target sex with informant sex, and (b) men actually vary more but accentuate personality differences less than women.
Method: We analyzed informant reports and self-reports on the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R or NEO PI-3) collected for two community and two student samples from four countries: Czech Republic (N = 714; age M = 36.1, SD = 14.1; 58% women), Estonia (N = 1,685; age M = 42.6, SD = 13.4; 58% women), Belgium (N = 345; age M = 18.4, SD = 3.0; 78% women), and Germany (N = 302; age M = 23.4, SD = 2.7; 56% women).
Results: Higher male than female variability was found in each sample for informant reports of Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Men but not women were overrepresented in both tails of the distributions of several personality traits.
Conclusions: According to liability-threshold models of mental disorders, this may contribute to men's overrepresentation in some kinds of deviant groups.

NONE of the above studies had checked if women are taking contraceptive pills or other hormonal therapy.

Dr. Martina Hřebíčková had also presented the poster "Regional stereotypes do not reflect personality traits of real people" at the ASSOCIATION for RESEARCH in PERSONALITY 2nd Biennial Conference / Riverside, California / June 16-18, 2011

Remember to read papers:
Predictability of Personality Traits is Dismal !!!
"Personality Similarities Predict Relationship Satisfaction in 23 Countries"
"Culture and Close Relationships: A Psychological View"


C level executives do not  pay attention to latest research from Academics which could be beneficial for the Online Dating Industry.

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